Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services, LLC
Telephone: (804) 457-2883
Bat Removal & Control
Richmond and Charlottesville, VA
(804) 457-2883
Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services is the ONLY area bat removal and control company where ALL of our employees are Bat Standards Compliant Trained. When you have bats in your attic or a bat in the house, we are the company to call to perform bat exclusions, individual bat removal, and bat guano (bat poop) clean-up services throughout the State of Virginia - including Richmond, Chesterfield, Chester, Midlothian, Bon Air, Short Pump, Charlottesville, Goochland, Louisa, Fluvanna, Orange, Waynesboro, Staunton, Albemarle, Powhatan, Amelia, Mineral, Gordonsville, Earlysville, Keswick, Henrico, Chesapeake, Hampton, Glen Allen, Elkton, Brandermill, Ashland, Woodlake, Southwest Virginia, Central Virginia, Northern Virginia, Harrisonburg, Luray, Mechanicsville, Petersburg, Colonial Heights, Newport News, Norfolk, Portsmouth, Roanoke, Rockingham, Barboursville, Salem, Tidewater Virginia, Hampton Roads Virginia, Shenandoah, Virginia Beach, Williamsburg, Yorktown and Hanover. Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services is registered with and recommended by Bat Conservation International as Bat Exclusion Professionals. Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services personnel view bats as the beneficial animals that they are, and make every effort to exclude bats from buildings in a safe and effective manner. Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services personnel are also knowledgeable and experienced with safe bat guano clean-up techniques and procedures.

At
Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services we are constantly striving to advance our education so that we may serve you better.

If you have a bat colony in your attic, call
Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services today and schedule a site visit. We can safely remove the bats from your home, and make sure that the bats do not return. We do not perform bat exclusions from May through August.

A bat in your house? First, if possible isolate the bat to one room, then call
Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services and let us remove the bat for you. If the bat has made contact with any person or pet, it will need to be tested by the Virginia Health Department for rabies.

Damage and Damage Identification

Bats often fly about swimming pools, from which they drink or catch insects. White light (with an ultraviolet component), commonly used for porch lights, building illumination, street and parking-lot lights, may attract flying insects, which in turn attract bats. Unfortunately, the mere presence of a
bat outdoors is sometimes beyond the tolerance of some uninformed people. Information is a good remedy for such situations.

Bats commonly enter buildings through openings associated with the roof edge and valleys, eaves, apex of the gable, chimney, attic or roof vent, dormers, and siding. Other openings may be found under loosefitting doors, around windows, gaps around various conduits (wiring, plumbing, air conditioning) that pass through walls, and through utility vents.

Bats are able to squeeze through narrow slits and cracks. For purposes of bat management, one should pay attention to any gap of approximately 1/4 x 1 1/2 inches (0.6 x 3.8 cm) or a hole 5/8 x 7/8 inch (1.6 x 2.2 cm). Such openings must be considered potential entries for at least the smaller species, such as the little brown bat. The smaller species require an opening no wider than 3/8 inch (0.95 cm), that is, a hole the diameter of a US 10-cent coin (Greenhall 1982). Openings of these
dimensions are not uncommon in older wood frame structures where boards have shrunk, warped, or otherwise become loosened.

The discovery of one or two bats in a house is a frequent problem. In the Northeast, big brown bats probably account for most sudden appearances. Common in urban areas, they often enter homes through open windows or unscreened fireplaces. If unused chimneys are selected for summer roosts, bats may fall or crawl through the open damper into the house. Sometimes bats may appear
in a room, then disappear by crawling under a door to another room, hallway, or closet. They may also disappear behind curtains, wall hangings, bookcases, under beds, into waste baskets, and so forth. Locating and removing individual bats from living quarters can be laborious but is important. If all else fails, wait until dusk when the bat may appear once again as it attempts to find an exit. Since big brown bats may hibernate in the cooler recesses of heated buildings, they may suddenly appear (flying indoors or outdoors) in midwinter during a warm spell or a cold snap as they move about to adjust to the temperature shift. (Source: Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage -- 1994)

Health Concerns

Rabies - Bats are distinct from most vertebrate pests that inhabit human dwellings because of the potential for transmitting rabies — a viral infection of mammals that is usually transmitted via the bite of an infected animal. Rabies does not respond to antibiotic therapy and is nearly always fatal once symptoms occur. However, because of the long incubation period (from 2 weeks to many months), prompt vaccination following exposure can prevent the disease in humans. Dogs, cats, and
livestock also can be protected by periodic vaccinations.

Bats are not asymptomatic carriers of rabies. After an incubation period of 2 weeks to 6 months, they become ill with the disease for as long as 10 days. During this latter period, a rabid bat’s
behavior is generally not normal—it may be found active during the daytime or on the ground incapable of flying. Most human exposures are the result of accidental or careless handling of grounded bats. Even less frequently, bats in this stage of illness may be involved in unprovoked
attacks on people or pets (Brass, pers. commun.; Trimarchi et al. 1979). It is during this stage that the rabid bat is capable of transmitting the disease by biting another mammal. As the disease
progresses the bat becomes increasingly paralyzed and dies as a result of the infection. The virus in the carcass is reported to remain infectious until decomposition is well advanced.

Rabies is the most important public health hazard associated with bats. Infection with rabies has been confirmed in all 40 North American species of bats that have been adequately sampled in all of the contiguous United States and in most provinces of Canada.

Bats rank third (behind raccoons and skunks) in incidence of wildlife rabies in the United States (Krebs et al. 1992). In the last 20 years, however, there have been more human rabies cases of
bat origin in the United States than of any other wildlife group. Furthermore, the disease in bats is more widely distributed (in all 48 contiguous states in 1989) than in any other species. In Canada, bats also rank third (behind foxes and skunks) in the incidence of wildlife rabies. Therefore, every bat bite or contact must be considered a potential exposure to rabies. While aerosol transmission of the rabies virus from bats in caves to humans and some other mammals has been reported, this is not a likely route of infection for humans entering bat roosts in buildings in temperate North
America.

Histoplasmosis - Histoplasmosis is a very common lung disease of worldwide distribution caused by a microscopic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasma exists in nature as a saprophytic
mold that grows in soil with high nitrogen content, generally associated with the guano and debris of
birds (particularly starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, and chickens) and bats. Wind is probably the main agent of dispersal, but the fungus can survive and be transmitted from one site to another in the intestinal contents of bats, and also in the dermal appendages of both bats and birds. The disease can be acquired by the casual inhalation of windblown spores, but infections are more likely to result from visits to point sources of growth of the fungus. Relative to bats, such sources include
bat roosts in caves, barns, attics, and belfries, and soil enriched with bat guano.

Numerous wild and domestic animals are susceptible to histoplasmosis, but bats (and perhaps the armadillo) are the only important animal vectors. Unlike bats, birds do not appear to become infected with the fungus. Both the presence of guano and particular environmental conditions are necessary for H. capsulatum to proliferate. In avian habitats, the organism apparently grows best where the guano is in large deposits, rotting and mixed with soil rather than in nests or in fresh
deposits. Specific requirements regarding bats have not been described, though bat roosts with long-term infestation are often mentioned in the literature.

While histoplasmosis in the United States is particularly endemic to the Ohio-Mississippi Valley region (which is also an area with the greatest starling concentration) and areas along the Appalachian Mountains, it is also found in the lake and river valleys of other states. Outside areas with “appropriate” environmental conditions, there also occur scattered foci with high infection rates usually associated with caves inhabited by bats or birds.

When soil or guano containing H. capsulatum is physically disturbed, the spores become airborne.
Persons at particular risk of histoplasmosis of bat origin include spelunkers, bat biologists, pest control technicians, people who clean out or work in areas where bats have habitually roosted,
and people in contact with guano enriched soil — such as around the foundation of a building where guano has sifted down through the walls.

Infection occurs upon inhalation of spores and can result in a variety of clinical manifestations; severity partially depends on the quantity of spores inhaled. The infection may remain localized in the lungs where it may resolve uneventfully; this is the case for about 95% of the 500,000 infections
occurring annually in the United States. Such infections are identified only by the presence of a positive histoplasmin skin test and/or calcified lesions on routine radiographs. Other individuals may have chronic or progressive lung disease requiring treatment. Less severe forms of these infections may be accompanied by fever, cough, and generalized symptoms similar to a prolonged influenza. Resolution of the disease confers a degree of immunity to reinfection. In addition, resolution confers varying degrees of hypersensitivity to H. capsulatum; as a consequence, massive reinfection in highly sensitized lungs may result in a fatal acute allergic reaction.

In a small percentage of chronic histoplasmosis cases, the fungus disseminates to involve multiple organ systems and may be fatal. This form is usually seen in young children (1 year or older) and in immuno-compromised adults. In recent years, systemic infections have been increasing in frequency globally as an opportunistic infection of AIDS patients. (Source: Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage -- 1994)
Copyright 2017 Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services, LLC.
Telephone: (804) 457-2883
Email: vpwrs@hughes.net
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