Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services, LLC
Telephone: (804) 457-2883
Bat Removal & Control Richmond and Charlottesville, VA
Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services is the ONLY area bat removal and control
company where ALL of our employees are Bat Standards Compliant Trained. We perform
bat exclusions, individual bat removal, and bat guano (bat poop) clean-up services throughout the
State of Virginia - including Richmond, Chesterfield, Chester, Midlothian, Bon Air, Short Pump, Charlottesville, Goochland, Louisa, Fluvanna, Orange, Waynesboro, Staunton,
Albemarle, Powhatan, Amelia, Mineral, Gordonsville, Earlysville, Keswick, Henrico, Chesapeake, Hampton, Glen Allen, Elkton, Brandermill, Ashland, Woodlake, Southwest Virginia, Central Virginia, Northern Virginia,
Harrisonburg, Luray, Mechanicsville, Petersburg, Colonial Heights, Newport News, Norfolk, Portsmouth, Roanoke, Rockingham, Barboursville, Salem, Tidewater Virginia, Hampton Roads Virginia,
Shenandoah, Virginia Beach, Williamsburg, Yorktown and Hanover. Virginia Professional Wildlife
Removal Services is registered with and recommended by Bat Conservation International as Bat
Exclusion Professionals. Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services personnel view bats
as the beneficial animals that they are, and make every effort to exclude bats from buildings in a
safe and effective manner. Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services personnel are also
knowledgeable and experienced with safe bat guano clean-up techniques and procedures.
At Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services we are constantly striving to advance our
education so that we may serve you better.
If you have a bat colony in your attic, call Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services today
and schedule a site visit. We can safely remove the bats from your home, and make sure that the
bats do not return. We do not perform bat exclusions from May through August.
A bat in your house? First, if possible isolate the bat to one room, then call Virginia Professional
Wildlife Removal Services and let us remove the bat for you. If the bat has made contact with any
person or pet, it will need to be tested by the Virginia Health Department for rabies.
Damage and Damage Identification
Bats often fly about swimming pools, from which they drink or catch insects. White light (with an
ultraviolet component), commonly used for porch lights, building illumination, street and parking-lot
lights, may attract flying insects, which in turn attract bats. Unfortunately, the mere presence of a
bat outdoors is sometimes beyond the tolerance of some uninformed people. Information is a
good remedy for such situations.
Bats commonly enter buildings through openings associated with the roof edge and valleys, eaves,
apex of the gable, chimney, attic or roof vent, dormers, and siding. Other openings may be found
under loosefitting doors, around windows, gaps around various conduits (wiring, plumbing, air
conditioning) that pass through walls, and through utility vents.
Bats are able to squeeze through narrow slits and cracks. For purposes of bat management, one
should pay attention to any gap of approximately 1/4 x 1 1/2 inches (0.6 x 3.8 cm) or a hole 5/8 x
7/8 inch (1.6 x 2.2 cm). Such openings must be considered potential entries for at least the smaller
species, such as the little brown bat. The smaller species require an opening no wider than 3/8 inch
(0.95 cm), that is, a hole the diameter of a US 10-cent coin (Greenhall 1982). Openings of these
dimensions are not uncommon in older wood frame structures where boards have shrunk, warped,
or otherwise become loosened.
The discovery of one or two bats in a house is a frequent problem. In the Northeast, big brown bats
probably account for most sudden appearances. Common in urban areas, they often enter homes
through open windows or unscreened fireplaces. If unused chimneys are selected for summer
roosts, bats may fall or crawl through the open damper into the house. Sometimes bats may appear
in a room, then disappear by crawling under a door to another room, hallway, or closet. They may
also disappear behind curtains, wall hangings, bookcases, under beds, into waste baskets, and so
forth. Locating and removing individual bats from living quarters can be laborious but is important. If
all else fails, wait until dusk when the bat may appear once again as it attempts to find an exit. Since
big brown bats may hibernate in the cooler recesses of heated buildings, they may suddenly
appear (flying indoors or outdoors) in midwinter during a warm spell or a cold snap as they move
about to adjust to the temperature shift. (Source: Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage --
Rabies - Bats are distinct from most vertebrate pests that inhabit human dwellings because of the
potential for transmitting rabies — a viral infection of mammals that is usually transmitted via the bite
of an infected animal. Rabies does not respond to antibiotic therapy and is nearly always fatal once
symptoms occur. However, because of the long incubation period (from 2 weeks to many months),
prompt vaccination following exposure can prevent the disease in humans. Dogs, cats, and
livestock also can be protected by periodic vaccinations.
Bats are not asymptomatic carriers of rabies. After an incubation period of 2 weeks to 6 months,
they become ill with the disease for as long as 10 days. During this latter period, a rabid bat’s
behavior is generally not normal—it may be found active during the daytime or on the ground
incapable of flying. Most human exposures are the result of accidental or careless handling of
grounded bats. Even less frequently, bats in this stage of illness may be involved in unprovoked
attacks on people or pets (Brass, pers. commun.; Trimarchi et al. 1979). It is during this stage that
the rabid bat is capable of transmitting the disease by biting another mammal. As the disease
progresses the bat becomes increasingly paralyzed and dies as a result of the infection. The virus
in the carcass is reported to remain infectious until decomposition is well advanced.
Rabies is the most important public health hazard associated with bats. Infection with rabies has
been confirmed in all 40 North American species of bats that have been adequately sampled in all
of the contiguous United States and in most provinces of Canada.
Bats rank third (behind raccoons and skunks) in incidence of wildlife rabies in the United States
(Krebs et al. 1992). In the last 20 years, however, there have been more human rabies cases of
bat origin in the United States than of any other wildlife group. Furthermore, the disease in bats is
more widely distributed (in all 48 contiguous states in 1989) than in any other species. In Canada,
bats also rank third (behind foxes and skunks) in the incidence of wildlife rabies. Therefore, every
bat bite or contact must be considered a potential exposure to rabies. While aerosol transmission
of the rabies virus from bats in caves to humans and some other mammals has been reported, this
is not a likely route of infection for humans entering bat roosts in buildings in temperate North
Histoplasmosis - Histoplasmosis is a very common lung disease of worldwide distribution caused
by a microscopic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. Histoplasma exists in nature as a saprophytic
mold that grows in soil with high nitrogen content, generally associated with the guano and debris of
birds (particularly starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, and chickens) and bats. Wind is probably the main
agent of dispersal, but the fungus can survive and be transmitted from one site to another in the
intestinal contents of bats, and also in the dermal appendages of both bats and birds. The disease
can be acquired by the casual inhalation of windblown spores, but infections are more likely to
result from visits to point sources of growth of the fungus. Relative to bats, such sources include
bat roosts in caves, barns, attics, and belfries, and soil enriched with bat guano.
Numerous wild and domestic animals are susceptible to histoplasmosis, but bats (and perhaps the
armadillo) are the only important animal vectors. Unlike bats, birds do not appear to become
infected with the fungus. Both the presence of guano and particular environmental conditions are
necessary for H. capsulatum to proliferate. In avian habitats, the organism apparently grows best
where the guano is in large deposits, rotting and mixed with soil rather than in nests or in fresh
deposits. Specific requirements regarding bats have not been described, though bat roosts with
long-term infestation are often mentioned in the literature.
While histoplasmosis in the United States is particularly endemic to the Ohio-Mississippi Valley
region (which is also an area with the greatest starling concentration) and areas along the
Appalachian Mountains, it is also found in the lake and river valleys of other states. Outside areas
with “appropriate” environmental conditions, there also occur scattered foci with high infection rates
usually associated with caves inhabited by bats or birds.
When soil or guano containing H. capsulatum is physically disturbed, the spores become airborne.
Persons at particular risk of histoplasmosis of bat origin include spelunkers, bat biologists, pest
control technicians, people who clean out or work in areas where bats have habitually roosted,
and people in contact with guanoenriched soil — such as around the foundation of a building where
guano has sifted down through the walls.
Infection occurs upon inhalation of spores and can result in a variety of clinical manifestations;
severity partially depends on the quantity of spores inhaled. The infection may remain localized in
the lungs where it may resolve uneventfully; this is the case for about 95% of the 500,000 infections
occurring annually in the United States. Such infections are identified only by the presence of a
positive histoplasmin skin test and/or calcified lesions on routine radiographs. Other individuals may
have chronic or progressive lung disease requiring treatment. Less severe forms of these
infections may be accompanied by fever, cough, and generalized symptoms similar to a prolonged
influenza. Resolution of the disease confers a degree of immunity to reinfection. In addition,
resolution confers varying degrees of hypersensitivity to H. capsulatum; as a consequence,
massive reinfection in highly sensitized lungs may result in a fatal acute allergic reaction.
In a small percentage of chronic histoplasmosis cases, the fungus disseminates to involve multiple
organ systems and may be fatal. This form is usually seen in young children (1 year or older) and in
immunocompromised adults. In recent years, systemic infections have been increasing in
frequency globally as an opportunistic infection of AIDS patients. (Source: Prevention and Control
of Wildlife Damage -- 1994)
Copyright 2016 Virginia Professional Wildlife Removal Services, LLC. Telephone: (804) 457-2883